100 Plus – Git Commands to Master Your Code

Want to manage while tracking changes or update your codebase efficiently using Git commands. Git commands are widely used in the software development community to perform various tasks, such as tracking changes to your code, creating branches, and merging changes.

GIT, an extensively employed open-source version control system (VCS), serves as a means to monitor modifications made to files. In software and application development, companies and programmers frequently rely on GIT to foster collaboration.

A GIT project encompasses three principal segments: the working directory, the staging area, and the git directory.

The working directory serves as the space where additions, deletions, and file modifications occur. Subsequently, these alterations are staged or indexed within the staging area. Once you commit the changes, a snapshot capturing the modifications is stored within the git directory.

Now that you know the basic and principal segments of Git and Git commands, then let’s get into Git terminology first.

Git Terminology 

Git offers vast amounts of terminology and jargon to their commands, which can be confusing for some users. or those who are familiar with Git basics but aspire to master it. Therefore, we need to briefly explain the vocabulary used by the tools. Let’s examine the terminologies that are frequently used.

Here is a official siteGit – gitglossary Documentation

  • Branch: A branch represents a parallel iteration of your project.
  • Commit: A commit denotes a snapshot capturing the historical state of your project.
  • Diff: A diff entails a comparison between two versions of a file.
  • HEAD: HEAD signifies the present snapshot of your project.
  • Index: The index acts as an intermediary area for staging impending commit changes.
  • Log: The log provides a record of your project’s chronological progression.
  • Merge: Merging entails the amalgamation of alterations from two branches.
  • Remote: A remote designates a repository external to your local repository.
  • Rebase: Rebasing involves aligning your local branch with changes made in a remote branch.
  • Reset: Resetting involves reverting changes made to your local repository.
  • Revert: Reverting involves undoing a previous commit.
  • Staging area: The staging area serves as a temporary storage location for imminent commit modifications.
  • Tag: A tag serves as a reference to a specific commit.
  • Working directory: The working directory signifies the current working location where you operate.

Git Commands 

Here is a list of Git commands with their descriptions.

  • Main porcelain commands
CommandsDescription
git-addAdds file contents to the index
git-amApply many fixes obtained from a mailbox
git-archiveMakes a file archive from a named tree.
git-bisectUses binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug
git-branchLists, creates, or deletes branches
git-bundleMoves objects and refs by archive
git-checkoutSwitches branches or restores working tree files
git-cherry-pickApplies the changes introduced by some existing commits
git-citoolGraphical alternative to git-commit
git-cleanRemoves untracked files from the working tree
git-cloneClones a repository into a new directory
git-commitRecords changes to the repository
git-describeGives an object a human-readable name based on an available ref
git-diffchanges between commits, between a commit and the working tree, etc.
git-fetchDownloads objects and refs from another repository
git-format-patchPrepares patches for email submission
git-gcoptimizes the local repository and removes unneeded files
git-grepPrints lines matching a pattern
git-guiA portable graphical interface to Git
git-initEither creates a new, empty Git repository or resets an existing one.
git-logShows commit logs
git-maintenanceRuns tasks to optimize Git repository data
git-mergeJoins two or more development histories together
git-mvChanges the name or location of a file, directory, or symlink.
git-notesAdds or inspects object notes
git-pullObtains data from and merges it with a local branch or a different repository.
git-pushUpdates remote refs along with associated objects
git-range-diffCompares two commit ranges (e.g., two versions of a branch)
git-rebaseReapplies commits over another base recommendation
git-resetResets current HEAD to the specified state
git-restoreRestores working tree files
git-revertReverts some existing commits
git-rmDeletes files from the index and the working tree.
git-shortlogSummarizes git log output
git-showShows various types of objects
git-sparse-checkoutReduces your working tree to a subset of tracked files
git-stashStashes the modifications in an unclean working directory.
git-statusShows the working tree status
git-submoduleInitializes, updates, or inspects submodules
git-switchSwitches branches
git-tagCreates, lists, deletes, or checks a tag object that is GPG-signed.
git-worktreeManages multiple working trees

Ancillary Commands

  • Manipulators:
CommandsDescription
git-configGet and set repository or global options
git-fast-exportGit data exporter
git-fast-importBackend for fast Git data importers
git-filter-branchRewrite branches
git-mergetoolTo resolve merge conflicts, use merge conflict resolution software.
git-pack-refsPack heads and tags for quick access to the repository
git-pruneTrim the object database of any inaccessible items.
git-reflogManage reflog information
git-remoteManage a set of tracked repositories
git-repackPack unpack objects in a repository
git-replaceTo replace objects, create, list, or remove references.
  • Interrogators
CommandsDescription
git-annotateAnnotate file lines with commit information
git-blameDisplay revision and author information for each line of a file
git-cherryFind commits that are yet to be applied to the upstream
git-count-objectsCount the number of unpacked items and the amount of disc space they take up.
git-diff-filesCompare files between the working tree and the index
git-diff-indexA tree’s comparison with the working tree or index
git-difftoolShow changes using external diff tools
git-for-each-refOutput information on each reference
git-fsckVerify the connectivity and validity of objects in the database
git-get-tar-commit-idExtract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive
git-helpDisplay help information about Git
git-instawebQuickly browse your working repository using gitweb
git-merge-baseFind the most recent common ancestor for a merge
git-merge-filePerform a three-way file merge
git-merge-indexMerge files that require merging
git-merge-one-fileThe standard helper program for git-merge-tree
git-mergetoolRun merge conflict resolution tools
git-mergetool–libCommon file conflict resolution functions
git-mktagCreate a tag object
git-name-revFind symbolic names for given revisions
git-pack-objectsCreate a packed archive of objects
git-pruneGet rid of all inaccessible items in the object database.
git-prune-packedRemove redundant objects that are already in pack files
git-quiltimportApply a quilt patchset onto the current branch
git-read-treeRead tree information into the index
git-receive-packReceive and apply pushed changes to the repository
git-repackPack unpacked objects in the repository
git-replaceTo replace objects, create, list, or remove references.
git-rerereReuse recorded resolutions of conflicted merges
git-send-emailSend a collection of patches as emails
git-sh-i18nGit’s internationalization setup code for shell scripts
git-shellRestricted login shell for Git-only SSH access
git-sh-setupCommon Git shell script setup code
git-sh-i18n–envsubstGit’s internationalization setup code for scripts that use envsubst
git-show-indexShow the packed archive index
git-show-refList references in a local repository
git-stageAdd file contents to the staging area
git-stripspaceRemove unnecessary whitespace
git-symbolic-refRead, modify, or delete symbolic references
git-tar-treeCreate a tar archive of files in a named tree object
git-unpack-fileCreate a temporary file with the contents of a blob
git-unpack-objectsUnpack objects from a packed archive
git-update-indexAdd file contents in the working tree to the index
git-update-refUpdate the object name stored in a reference
git-upload-archiveSend an archive back to git-archive
git-upload-packSend packed objects back to git-fetch-pack
git-varShow a Git logical variable
git-verify-packValidate packed Git archive files
git-write-treeMake a tree object starting with the current index.
git-checkout-indexCopy files from the index to the working tree
git-commit-treeCreate a new commit object
git-hash-objectCompute the object ID and optionally create a blob from a file
git-mktreeBuild a tree object from ls-tree formatted text
git-pack-refsPack heads and tags for quick access to the repository
git-revertRevert existing commits
git-showShow various types of objects
git-show-branchShow branches and their commits
git-show-indexShow the packed archive index
git-show-refList references in a local repository
git-stashStash changes in a dirty working directory
git-statusShow the status of the working tree
git-switchSwitch branches
git-tagA tag object can be created, listed, removed, or verified.
git-unpack-objectsUnpack objects from a packed archive
git-update-indexAdd file contents in the working tree to the index
git-update-refUpdate the object name stored in a reference
git-worktreeManage multiple working trees
git-write-treeCreate a tree object from the current index

If you want even more commands, such as Interrogation commands, Syncing repositories, Internal helper commands, even Guides. You want can find it here on their official directory – git Documentation

Conclusion

Git commands encompass a wide range of functionalities, providing comprehensive support for version control. Attempting to memorize the entirety of Git commands can be overwhelming and impractical. However, leveraging these commands when working on complex projects can greatly enhance productivity and efficiency. If there are any crucial commands that I may have overlooked or if you have additional insights to contribute, I invite you to leave a comment below. Collaboration and knowledge sharing are vital for mastering the Git workflow.

FAQs on Git Commands

Q1: What are Git commands?

Git commands are a set of instructions used with the Git version control system to perform various operations such as initializing a repository, tracking changes, creating branches, merging code, collaborating with others, and more.

Q2: Why are Git commands important?

Git commands are essential for developers as they provide a structured way to manage and track changes in their projects. These commands enable efficient collaboration, version control, and code management, making it easier to work on software development projects.

Q3: How do I start using Git commands?

To start using Git commands, you first need to install Git on your computer. Once installed, you can open a terminal or command prompt and navigate to the directory where your project resides. From there, you can use various Git commands to initialize a repository and perform other operations.

Q4: What are some common Git commands?

Some common Git commands include:

  • git init: Initializes a new Git repository.
  • git add: Adds a file or changes to the staging area.
  • git commit -m “message”: Commits the changes with a descriptive message.
  • git push: Pushes local changes to a remote repository.
  • git pull: Fetches and merges changes from a remote repository.
  • git branch: Lists all branches in the repository.
  • git merge: Merges changes from one branch into another.

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